Wednesday, January 26, 2011
सुजलां सुफलां मलयजशीतलाम्
शस्यशामलां मातरम् ।
सुहासिनीं सुमधुर भाषिणीं
सुखदां वरदां मातरम् ।। १ ।। वन्दे मातरम् ।
अबला केन मा एत बले ।
बहुबलधारिणीं नमामि तारिणीं
रिपुदलवारिणीं मातरम् ।। २ ।। वन्दे मातरम् ।
तुमि विद्या, तुमि धर्म
तुमि हृदि, तुमि मर्म
त्वं हि प्राणा: शरीरे
बाहुते तुमि मा शक्ति,
हृदये तुमि मा भक्ति,
तोमारई प्रतिमा गडि
मन्दिरे-मन्दिरे मातरम् ।। ३ ।। वन्दे मातरम् ।
त्वं हि दुर्गा दशप्रहरणधारिणी
वाणी विद्यादायिनी, नमामि त्वाम्
नमामि कमलां अमलां अतुलां
सुजलां सुफलां मातरम् ।। ४ ।। वन्दे मातरम् ।
श्यामलां सरलां सुस्मितां भूषितां
धरणीं भरणीं मातरम् ।। ५ ।। वन्दे मातरम् ।।
Friday, January 21, 2011
Bose advocated complete independence for India at the earliest, whereas the All-India Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through Dominion status. Finally at the historic Lahore Congress convention, the Congress adopted Purna Swaraj (complete independence) as its motto. Bhagat Singh's martyrdom and the inability of the Congress leaders to save his life infuriated Bose and he started a movement opposing the Gandhi-Irwin Pact. He was imprisoned and expelled from India. Defying the ban, he came back to India and was imprisoned again.
Bose was elected president of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms, but had to resign from the post following ideological conflicts with Mohandas K. Gandhi and after openly attacking the Congress' foreign and internal policies. Bose believed that Gandhi's tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and advocated violent resistance. He established a separate political party, the All India Forward Bloc and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule. He was imprisoned by the British authorities eleven times. His famous motto was "Give me blood and I will give you freedom".
His stance did not change with the outbreak of the Second World War, which he saw as an opportunity to take advantage of British weakness. At the outset of the war, he left India, travelling to the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan, seeking an alliance with each of them to attack the British government in India. With Imperial Japanese assistance, he re-organised and later led the Azad Hind Fauj or Indian National Army (INA), formed with Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers from British Malaya, Singapore, and other parts of Southeast Asia, against British forces. With Japanese monetary, political, diplomatic and military assistance, he formed the Azad Hind Government in exile, and regrouped and led the Indian National Army in failed military campaigns against the allies at Imphal and in Burma.
His political views and the alliances he made with Nazi and other militarist regimes at war with Britain have been the cause of arguments among historians and politicians, with some accusing him of fascist sympathies, while others in India have been more sympathetic towards the realpolitik that guided his social and political choices.
He is presumed to have died on 18 August 1945 in a plane crash in Taiwan, though the evidence for his death in such an accident has not been universally accepted (see below).
* 1 Early life
* 2 National politics
* 3 Disappearance and alleged death
o 3.1 Mysterious monk
o 3.2 Justice Mukherjee's inadvertent approval of Bhagwanji's identity
* 4 Personal life
* 5 Political views
* 6 Bose's Chair at Red Fort
* 7 Artistic depictions of Bose
* 8 See also
* 9 Notes
* 10 Further reading
* 11 External links
 Early life
Subhas Chandra Bose was born in a Bengali Kayasth family on January 23, 1897 in Cuttack (Odiya Baazar), Orissa, to Janakinath Bose, (ADVOCATE), and Prabhavati Devi. He was the ninth child of 14. He studied in an Anglo school at Cuttack (now known as Stewart School) until standard 6. He then shifted to Ravenshaw Collegiate School of Cuttack. From there he went to the prestigious Presidency College where he studied briefly. His nationalistic temperament came to light when he was expelled for assaulting Professor Oaten for his anti-India comments . Subhas Chandra Bose assaults Oaten, 1916] . A brilliant student, Bose later topped the matriculation examination of Calcutta province in 1911 and passed his B.A. in 1918 in philosophy from the renowned Scottish Church College of the University of Calcutta (after being expelled from the Presidency College, Calcutta for his assault on Prof Oaten for the latter's anti-India statements.)
Bose went to study in Fitzwilliam Hall of the University of Cambridge, and matriculated, that is formally enrolled in the Cambridge University, on 19 November 1919. He was a non-collegiate student. He studied Philosophy for Moral Sciences Tripos, as the honours BA is known. He was awarded a third class pass in the examinations for Part I of this tripos in 1921. He graduated BA by proxy on 4 November 1922 (source: UA Graduati 12/26).
His high score in the Civil Service examinations meant an almost automatic appointment. He then took his first conscious step as a revolutionary and resigned the appointment on the premise that the "best way to end a government is to withdraw from it. At the time, Indian nationalists were shocked and outraged because of the Amritsar massacre and the repressive Rowlatt legislation of 1919. Returning to India, Bose wrote for the newspaper Swaraj and took charge of publicity for the Bengal Provincial Congress Committee. His mentor was Chittaranjan Das, spokesman for aggressive nationalism in Bengal. Bose worked for Das when the latter was elected mayor of Calcutta in 1924. In a roundup of nationalists in 1925, Bose was arrested and sent to prison in Mandalay, where he contracted tuberculosis.
 National politics
Main article: All India Forward Bloc
Mohandas K. Gandhi at the Indian National Congress annual meeting in 1938 when Subhas Chandra Bose was President of Congress party.
Released from prison two years later, Bose became general secretary of the Congress party and worked with Jawaharlal Nehru for independence. Again Bose was arrested and jailed for civil disobedience; this time he emerged to become Mayor of Calcutta in 1930. During the mid-1930s Bose travelled in Europe, visiting Indian students and European politicians, including Mussolini. He observed party organization and saw communism and fascism in action..By 1938 Bose had become as leader of national stature and agreed to accept nomination as Congress president. He stood for unqualified Swaraj (self-dependence), including the use of force against the British. This meant a confrontation with Mohandas Gandhi, who in fact opposed Bose's presidency, splitting the Indian National Congress party. Bose attempted to maintain unity, but Gandhi advised Bose to form his own cabinet. The rift also divided Bose and Nehru. Bose appeared at the 1939 Congress meeting on a stretcher. Though he was elected president again, over Gandhi's preferred candidate Pattabhi Sitaramayya, U. Muthuramalingam Thevar strongly supported Bose in the intra-Congress dispute. Thevar mobilised all south India votes for Bose. However, due to the manoeuvrings of the Gandhi-led clique in the Congress Working Committee, Bose found himself forced to resign from the Congress presidency. His uncompromising stand finally cut him off from the mainstream of Indian nationalism Bose then organized the Forward Bloc on June 22, aimed at consolidating the political left, but its main strength was in his home state, Bengal. U Muthuramalingam Thevar, who was disillusioned by the official Congress leadership which had not revoked the Criminal Tribes Act (CTA), joined the Forward Bloc. When Bose visited Madurai on September 6, Thevar organised a massive rally as his reception.
Bose advocated the approach that the political instability of war-time Britain should be taken advantage of—rather than simply wait for the British to grant independence after the end of the war (which was the view of Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and a section of the Congress leadership at the time). In this, he was influenced by the examples of Italian statesmen Giuseppe Garibaldi and Giuseppe Mazzini.
His correspondence reveals that despite his clear dislike for British subjugation, he was deeply impressed by their methodical and systematic approach and their steadfastly disciplinarian outlook towards life. In England, he exchanged ideas on the future of India with British Labour Party leaders and political thinkers like Lord Halifax, George Lansbury, Clement Attlee, Arthur Greenwood, Harold Laski, J.B.S. Haldane, Ivor Jennings, G.D.H. Cole, Gilbert Murray and Sir Stafford Cripps . He came to believe that a free India needed socialist authoritarianism, on the lines of Turkey's Kemal Atatürk, for at least two decades. Bose was refused permission by the British authorities to meet Mr. Atatürk at Ankara for political reasons. During his sojourn in England, only the Labour Party and Liberal politicians agreed to meet with Bose when he tried to schedule appointments. Conservative Party officials refused to meet Bose or show him courtesy because he was a politician coming from a colony. In the 1930s leading figures in the Conservative Party had opposed even Dominion status for India. It was during the Labour Party government of 1945–1951, with Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India gained independence.
On the outbreak of war, Bose advocated a campaign of mass civil disobedience to protest against Viceroy Lord Linlithgow's decision to declare war on India's behalf without consulting the Congress leadership. Having failed to persuade Gandhi of the necessity of this, Bose organized mass protests in Calcutta calling for the 'Holwell Monument' commemorating the Black Hole of Calcutta, which then stood at the corner of Dalhousie Square, to be removed. A reasonable measure of the contrast between Gandhi and Bose is captured in a saying attributable to him: "If people slap you once, slap them twice". He was thrown in jail by the British, but was released following a seven-day hunger strike. Bose's house in Calcutta was kept under surveillance by the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), but their vigilance left a good deal to be desired. With two court cases pending, he felt the British would not let him leave the country before the end of the war. This set the scene for Bose's escape to Germany, via Afghanistan and the Soviet Union. On the night of his escape he dressed as a Pathan and left his house under strict observation. Bose had never been to Afghanistan, and could not speak the local Pashto language.
Bose escaped from under British surveillance at his house in Calcutta. On January 19, 1941, accompanied by his nephew Sisir K. Bose, Bose gave his watchers the slip and journeyed to Peshawar. With the assistance of the Abwehr, he made his way to Peshawar where he was met at Peshawar Cantonment station by Akbar Shah, Mohammed Shah and Bhagat Ram Talwar. Bose was taken to the home of Abad Khan, a trusted friend of Akbar Shah's. On 26 January 1941, Bose began his journey to reach Russia through India's North West frontier with Afghanistan. For this reason, he enlisted the help of Mian Akbar Shah, then a Forward Bloc leader in the North-West Frontier Province. Shah had been out of India en route to the Soviet Union, and suggested a novel disguise for Bose to assume. Since Bose could not speak one word of Pashto, it would make him an easy target of Pashto speakers working for the British. For this reason, Shah suggested that Bose act deaf and dumb, and let his beard grow to mimic those of the tribesmen. Bose's guide Bhagat Ram Talwar, unknown to him, was a Soviet agent.
Supporters of the Aga Khan III helped him across the border into Afghanistan where he was met by an Abwehr unit posing as a party of road construction engineers from the Organization Todt who then aided his passage across Afghanistan via Kabul to the border with Soviet Russia. Once in Russia the NKVD transported Bose to Moscow where he hoped that Russia's traditional enmity to British rule in India would result in support for his plans for a popular rising in India. However, Bose found the Soviets' response disappointing and was rapidly passed over to the German Ambassador in Moscow, Count von der Schulenburg. He had Bose flown on to Berlin in a special courier aircraft at the beginning of April where he was to receive a more favourable hearing from Joachim von Ribbentrop and the Foreign Ministry officials at the Wilhelmstrasse.
In 1941, when the British learned that Bose had sought the support of the Axis Powers, they ordered their agents to intercept and assassinate Bose before he reached Germany. A recently declassified intelligence document refers to a top-secret instruction to the Special Operations Executive (SOE) of British intelligence department to murder Bose. In fact, the plan to liquidate Bose has few known parallels, and appears to be a last desperate measure against a man who had thrown the British Empire into a panic.
Bose and a Wehrmacht officer. Having escaped incarceration at home by assuming the guise of a Pashtun insurance agent ("Ziaudddin") to reach Afghanistan, Bose travelled to Moscow on the Italian passport of an Italian nobleman "Count Orlando Mazzotta". From Moscow, he reached Rome, and from there he traveled to Germany, where he instituted the Special Bureau for India under Adam von Trott zu Solz, broadcasting on the German-sponsored Azad Hind Radio. He founded the Free India Centre in Berlin, and created the Indian Legion (consisting of some 4500 soldiers) out of Indian prisoners of war who had previously fought for the British in North Africa prior to their capture by Axis forces. The Indian Legion was attached to the Wehrmacht, and later transferred to the Waffen SS. Its members swore the following allegiance to Hitler and Bose: "I swear by God this holy oath that I will obey the leader of the German race and state, Adolf Hitler, as the commander of the German armed forces in the fight for India, whose leader is Subhash Chandra Bose".  This oath clearly abrogates control of the Indian legion to the German armed forces whilst stating Bose's overall leadership of India. He was also, however, prepared to envisage an invasion of India via the USSR by Nazi troops, spearheaded by the Azad Hind Legion; many have questioned his judgment here, as it seems unlikely that the Germans could have been easily persuaded to leave after such an invasion, which might also have resulted in an Axis victory in the War.
The lack of interest if not hostility shown by Hitler in the cause of Indian independence eventually caused Bose to become disillusioned and he decided to leave Nazi Germany in 1943. Bose had been living together with his wife Emilie Schenkl in Berlin from 1941 until 1943, when he left for south-east Asia. He traveled by the German submarine U-180 around the Cape of Good Hope to Imperial Japan (via Japanese submarine I-29). Thereafter the Japanese helped him raise his army in Singapore. This was the only civilian transfer across two submarines of two different navies in World War II.
The Indian National Army (INA) was originally founded by Capt Mohan Singh in Singapore in September 1942 with Japan's Indian POWs in the Far East. This was along the concept of—and with support of—what was then known as the Indian Independence League, headed by expatriate nationalist leader Rash Behari Bose. The first INA was however disbanded in December 1942 after disagreements between the Hikari Kikan and Mohan Singh, who came to believe that the Japanese High Command was using the INA as a mere pawn and propaganda tool. Mohan Singh was taken into custody and the troops returned to the prisoner-of-war camp. However, the idea of a liberation army was revived with the arrival of Subhas Chandra Bose in the Far East in 1943. In July, at a meeting in Singapore, Rash Behari Bose handed over control of the organisation to Subhas Chandra Bose. Bose was able to reorganise the fledging army and organise massive support among the expatriate Indian population in south-east Asia, who lent their support by both enlisting in the Indian National Army, as well as financially in response to Bose's calls for sacrifice for the national cause. At its height it consisted of some 85,000 regular troops, including a separate women's unit, the Rani of Jhansi Regiment (named after Rani Lakshmi Bai) headed by Capt. Lakshmi Swaminathan, which is seen as a first of its kind in Asia.
Even when faced with military reverses, Bose was able to maintain support for the Azad Hind movement. Spoken as a part of a motivational speech for the Indian National Army at a rally of Indians in Burma on July 4, 1944, Bose's most famous quote was "Give me blood, and I shall give you freedom!" In this, he urged the people of India to join him in his fight against the British Raj. Spoken in Hindi, Bose's words are highly evocative. The troops of the INA were under the aegis of a provisional government, the Azad Hind Government, which came to produce its own currency, postage stamps, court and civil code, and was recognised by nine Axis states—Germany, Japan, Italy, the Independent State of Croatia, Wang Jingwei regime in Nanjing, China, a provisional government of Burma, Manchukuo and Japanese-controlled Philippines. Recent researches have shown that the USSR too had recognised the "Provisional Government of Free India". Of those countries, five were authorities established under Axis occupation. This government participated in the so-called Greater East Asia Conference as a observer in November 1943.
Greater East Asia Conference in November 1943, Participants Left to right: Ba Maw, Zhang Jinghui, Wang Jingwei, Hideki Tojo, Wan Waithayakon, José P. Laurel, Subhas Chandra Bose
The INA's first commitment was in the Japanese thrust towards Eastern Indian frontiers of Manipur. INA's special forces, the Bahadur Group, were extensively involved in operations behind enemy lines both during the diversionary attacks in Arakan, as well as the Japanese thrust towards Imphal and Kohima, along with the Burmese National Army led by Ba Maw and Aung San. A year after the islands were taken by the Japanese, the Provisional Government and the INA were established in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands with Lt Col. A.D. Loganathan appointed its Governor General. The islands were renamed Shaheed (Martyr) and Swaraj (Independence). However, the Japanese Navy remained in essential control of the island's administration. During Bose's only visit to the islands late in 1943, when he was carefully screened from the local population by the Japanese authorities, who at that time were torturing the leader of the Indian Independence League on the Islands, Dr. Diwan Singh (who later died of his injuries, in the Cellular Jail). The islanders made several attempts to alert Bose to their plight, but apparently without success. Enraged with the lack of administrative control, Lt. Col Loganathan later relinquished his authority to return to the Government's head quarters in Rangoon.
On the Indian mainland, an Indian Tricolour, modelled after that of the Indian National Congress, was raised for the first time in the town in Moirang, in Manipur, in north-eastern India. The towns of Kohima and Imphal were placed under siege by divisions of the Japanese, Burmese and the Gandhi and Nehru Brigades of INA during the attempted invasion of India, also known as Operation U-GO. However, Commonwealth forces held both positions and then counter-attacked, in the process inflicting serious losses on the besieging forces, which were then forced to retreat back into Burma.
Bose had hoped that large numbers of soldiers would desert from the Indian Army when they would discover that INA soldiers were attacking British India from the outside. However, this did not materialise on a sufficient scale. Instead, as the war situation worsened for the Japanese, troops began to desert from the INA. At the same time Japanese funding for the army diminished, and Bose was forced to raise taxes on the Indian populations of Malaysia and Singapore, sometimes extracting money by force. When the Japanese were defeated at the battles of Kohima and Imphal, the Provisional Government's aim of establishing a base in mainland India was lost forever. The INA was forced to pull back, along with the retreating Japanese army, and fought in key battles against the British Indian Army in its Burma campaign, notable in Meiktilla, Mandalay, Pegu, Nyangyu and Mount Popa. However, with the fall of Rangoon, Bose's government ceased to be an effective political entity. A large proportion of the INA troops surrendered under Lt Col Loganathan when Rangoon fell. The remaining troops retreated with Bose towards Malaya or made for Thailand. Japan's surrender at the end of the war also led to the eventual surrender of the Indian National Army, when the troops of the British Indian Army were repatriated to India and some tried for treason.
In a speech broadcast by the Azad Hind Radio from Singapore on July 6, 1944, Bose addressed Mahatma Gandhi as the "Father of the Nation". This was the first time that Mahatma Gandhi was referred to by this appellation.
His other famous quote was, "Chalo Delhi", meaning "On to Delhi!" This was the call he used to give the INA armies to motivate them. "Jai Hind", or, "Glory to India!" was another slogan used by him and later adopted by the Government of India and the Indian Armed Forces.
 Disappearance and alleged death
Main article: Death of Subhash Chandra Bose
Bose's last undisputed picture that was taken on the morning of 17 August 1945 in Saigon
Bose is alleged to have died in a plane crash Taihoku (Taipei), Taiwan, on 18 August 1945 while en route to Tokyo and possibly then the Soviet Union. The Japanese plane he was travelling on had engine trouble and when it crashed Bose was badly burned, dying in a local hospital four hours later. His body was then cremated. This version of events is supported by the testimonies of a Captain Yoshida Taneyoshi, and a British spy known as 'Agent 1189.
The lack of a body has led to many theories have been put forward concerning his possible survival. One such claim is that Bose actually died later in Siberia, while in Soviet captivity. Several committees have been set up by the Government of India to probe into this matter.
In May 1956, a four-man Indian team known as the Shah Nawaz Committee visited Japan to probe the circumstances of Bose's alleged death. However, the Indian government did not then request assistance from the government of Taiwan in the matter, citing their lack of diplomatic relations with Taiwan.
However, the Inquiry Commission under Justice Mukherjee, which investigated the Bose disappearance mystery in the period 1999-2005, did approach the Taiwanese government, and obtained information from the Taiwan Government that no plane carrying Bose had ever crashed in Taipei, and there was, in fact, no plane crash in Taiwan on 18 August 1945 as alleged. The Mukherjee Commission also received a report originating from the U.S. Department of State supporting the claim of the Taiwan Government that no such air crash took place during that time frame..
Renkoji temple (Japan)
The Justice Mukherjee Commission of Inquiry submitted its report to the Indian Government on November 8, 2005. The report was tabled in Parliament on May 17, 2006. The probe said in its report that as Bose did not die in the plane crash, and that the ashes at the Renkoji Temple (said to be of Bose's) are not his. However, the Indian Government rejected the findings of the Commission, though no reasons were cited.
Several documents which could perhaps provide lead to the disappearance of Bose have not been declassified by the Government of India, the reason cited being publication of these documents could sour India's relations with some other countries.
Bose was posthumously awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award in 1992, but it was later withdrawn in response to a Supreme Court directive following a Public Interest Litigation filed in the Court against the "posthumous" nature of the award. The Award Committee could not give conclusive evidence on Bose's death and thus the "posthumous" award was invalidated. No headway was made on this issue however.
Bose's portrait hangs in the Indian Parliament, and a statue of him has been erected in front of the West Bengal Legislative Assembly.
 Mysterious monk
Several people believed that the Hindu sanyasi named Bhagwanji or 'Gumnami Baba', who lived in the house Ram Bhawan in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh at least until 1985, was Subhas Chandra Bose . There had been at least four known occasions when Gumnami Baba reportedly claimed he was Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. The belongings of the sanyasi were taken into custody after his death, following a court order. These were later subjected to inspection by the Justice Mukherjee Commission of Inquiry. The commission came down against this belief, in the absence of any "clinching evidence". The independent probe done by the Hindustan Times into the case however provided hints that the monk was Bose himself. Some people believe that Gumnami Baba died on 16 September 1985, while some dispute this. The story of Gumnami Baba came to light on his death. It is alleged that he was cremated in the dead of night, just under the light of a motorcycle's headlamp, at Faizabad's popular picnic spot, on the bank of River Saraju, his face distorted by acid to protect his identity. Faizabad's Bengali community still pays homage at the memorial built at his cremation site on the anniversary of his birth. However, the life and activities of Bhagwanji remain a mystery even today.
 Justice Mukherjee's inadvertent approval of Bhagwanji's identity
Justice Manoj Kumar Mukherjee who probed into the disappearance of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose stated in his report that the question of whether the sanyasi of Faizabad (Bhagwanji) was (or not) Bose "need not be answered" as there was no clinching evidence to prove it. However, he inadvertently stated in a documentary shoot that he believed Bhagwanji was none other than Bose. This revelation supports the view that Bose had not died in the plane crash in 1945, and was in fact in India after that.
 Personal life
Bose married his Austrian secretary Emilie Schenkl (1910–96) in 1937. Their only daughter, Anita Bose Pfaff born in 1942, is an economist associated with the University of Augsburg.-
 Political views
Main article: Subhas Chandra Bose's political views
Subhas Chandra Bose believed that the Bhagavad Gita was a great source of inspiration for the struggle against the British. Swami Vivekananda's teachings on universalism, his nationalist thoughts and his emphasis on social service and reform had all inspired Subhas Chandra Bose from his very young days. The fresh interpretation of the India's ancient scriptures had appealed immensely to him. Many scholars believe that Hindu spirituality formed the essential part of his political and social thought through his adult life, although there was no sense of bigotry or orthodoxy in it.Subhas who called himself a socialist, believed that socialism in India owed its origins to Swami Vivekananda. As historian Leonard Gordan explains "Inner religious explorations continued to be a part of his adult life. This set him apart from the slowly growing number of atheistic socialists and communists who dotted the Indian landscape." .
Bose inspecting Indische Legion troops alongside Oberstleutnant Kurt Krappe
Bose's correspondence (prior to 1939) reflects his deep disapproval of the racist practices of, and annulment of democratic institutions in Nazi Germany. However, he expressed admiration for the authoritarian methods (though not the racial ideologies) which he saw in Italy and Germany during the 1930s, and thought they could be used in building an independent India.
Bose had clearly expressed his belief that democracy was the best option for India. The pro-Bose thinkers believe that his authoritarian control of the Azad Hind was based on political pragmatism and a post-colonial recovery doctrine rather than any anti-democratic belief. However, during the war (and possibly as early as the 1930s) Bose seems to have decided that no democratic system could be adequate to overcome India's poverty and social inequalities, and he wrote that an authoritarian state, similar to that of Soviet Russia (which he had also seen and admired) would be needed for the process of national re-building. Accordingly some suggest that Bose's alliance with the Axis during the war was based on more than just pragmatism, and that Bose was a militant nationalist, though not a Nazi nor a Fascist, for he supported empowerment of women, secularism and other democratic ideas; alternatively, others consider he might have been using populist methods of mobilisation common to many post-colonial leaders. Bose never liked the Nazis but when he failed to contact the Russians for help in Afghanistan he approached the Germans and Italians for help. His comment was that if he had to shake hands with the devil for India's independence he would do that.
On August 23, 2007, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe visited the Subhas Chandra Bose memorial hall in Kolkata. Abe said to Bose's family "The Japanese are deeply moved by Bose's strong will to have led the Indian independence movement from British rule. Netaji is a much respected name in Japan."
 Bose's Chair at Red Fort
The following words are inscribed on a brass shield in front of the chair which is symbolic to the sovereignty of the Republic of India, as also to the Psychological upkeep of the Armed Forces of India. The chair rests in a glass case and is a symbol of pride as well as national heritage.
"Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose in order to free India from the shackles of British imperialism organized the Azad Hind Government from outside the country on October 21, 1943. Netaji set up the Provisional Government of Independent India (Azad Hind) and transferred its headquarter at Rangoon on January 7, 1944. On the 5th April, 1944, the "Azad Hind Bank" was inaugurated at Rangoon. It was on this occasion that Netaji used this chair for the first time. Later the chair was kept at the residence of Netaji at 51, University Avenue, Rangoon, where the office of the Azad Hind ls also housed. Afterwards,at the time of leaving Burma, the Britishers handed over the chair to the family of Mr.A.T.Ahuja, the well known business man of Rangoon. The chair was officially handed over to the Government of India in January 1979. It was brought to Calcutta on the 17th July, 1980. It has now been ceremonially installed at the Red Fort on July 7, 1981."
 Artistic depictions of Bose
* 2010: The lead character of a Kannada-language movie, Super, played by Upendra, is named Subhash Chandra Gandhi which is a portmanteau of Subhas Chandra Bose and Mahatma Gandhi -- the former known for his violent views to attaining freedom, and the latter, for his non-violence. Violence and non-violence are a recurrent theme in the film where the protagonist fights against corruption in contemporary India.
* 2005: Sachin Khedekar stars as Subhash Chandra Bose in Shyam Benegal's biopic Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero which deals with the last five years of Bose's leadership as well as some aspects of his personal life.
* 2002: Bose is portrayed by Keneth Desai in the film The Legend of Bhagat Singh directed by Rajkumar Santoshi. It is a historical biographical film about the Indian freedom fighter Bhagat Singh.
* 1989: In a satirical novel The Great Indian Novel by Shashi Tharoor, the character of Pandu is simultaneously based on Bose as well as the mythological character Pandu.
* 1950: Bose is a minor character in the successful 1950 Hindi film Samadhi, which is set in colonial Singapore on the backdrop of second INA rising. The film also features the famous regimental quick march song Kadam Kadam Badaye Ja of INA.
 See also
* Indian National Army
* Ekla Cholo Re- A poem by Rabindranath Tagore and publicized by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.
* Mission Netaji
* Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero
* Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology
* Netaji Subhas Open University
* Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport
1. ^ Answers.com
2. ^ James, L (1997) Raj, the Making and Unmaking of British India, Abacus, London P554
3. ^ Hauner, M (1981) India in Axis Strategy: Germany, Japan, and Indian Nationalists in the Second World War, Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart P28-29
4. ^ James, L (1997) Raj, the Making and Unmaking of British India, Abacus, London P575
5. ^ No crash at Taipei that killed Netaji: Taiwan govt. Outlook India
6. ^ Netaji case: US backs Taiwan govt. Times of India. 19 Sep, 2005
7. ^ Hindustantimes.com - the name India trusts for news at www.hindustantimes.com
8. ^ 'Netaji did not die in a plane crash'
9. ^ HindustanTimes.com Exclusive, Netaji’s death unraveled
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11. ^ http://www.thestatesman.net/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=320039&catid=38
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14. ^ Nirad C. Chaudhuri, Thy Hand, Great Anarch!: India, 1921-1952, Published by Chatto & Windus, 1987
15. ^ P. R. Bhuyan, Swami Vivekananda, Published by Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2003
16. ^ Leonard A. Gordon, Brothers Against The Raj:A Biography of Indian Nationalist Leaders Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose, Published by Columbia University Press, 1990
17. ^ Bose to Dr. Thierfelder of the Deutsche Academie, Kurhaus Hochland, Badgastein, 25th March 1936 "Today I regret that I have to return to India with the conviction that the new nationalism of Germany is not only narrow and selfish but arrogant." The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 p155
18. ^ a b Sen, S. 1999. Subhas Chandra Bose 1897-1945. From webarchive of this URL.
19. ^ Roy, Dr. R.C. 2004. Social, Economic and Political Philosophy of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. pp.7-8. Orissa Review. URL accessed on 6 April 2006
20. ^ "The Fundamental Problems of India" (An address to the Faculty and students of Tokyo University, November 1944): "You cannot have a so-called democratic system, if that system has to put through economic reforms on a socialistic basis. Therefore we must have a political system - a State - of an authoritarian character. We have had some experience of democratic institutions in India and we have also studied the working of democratic institutions in countries like France, England and United States of America. And we have come to the conclusion that with a democratic system we cannot solve the problems of Free India. Therefore, modern progressive thought in India is in favour of a State of an authoritarian character" The Essential Writings of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose Edited by Sisir K. Bose & Sugata Bose (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 1997 pp319-20
21. ^ a b "訪印中の安倍首相、東京裁判のパール判事の息子らと面会". Elizabeth Roche. AFPBB News. 2007-08-24. http://www.afpbb.com/article/politics/2271294/2039460?pageID=2. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
22. ^ a b "Shinzo Abe visits Netaji Bhavan, sees notion of a ‘Broader Asia’". Staff Reporter. The Hindu. 2007-08-24. http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/24/stories/2007082453761500.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-16.
 Further reading
* Indian Pilgrim: an unfinished autobiography / Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Oxford University Press, Calcutta, 1997
* The Indian Struggle, 1920-1942 / Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Oxford University Press, Calcutta, 1997 ISBN 978-0-19-564149-3
* Brothers Against the Raj—A biography of Indian Nationalists Sarat and Subhas Chandra Bose / Leonard A. Gordon, Princeton University Press, 1990
* Lost hero: a biography of Subhas Bose / Mihir Bose, Quartet Books, London; 1982
* Jungle alliance, Japan and the Indian National Army / Joyce C. Lebra, Singapore, Donald Moore for Asia Pacific Press,1971
* The Forgotten Army: India's Armed Struggle for Independence, 1942–1945, Peter W. Fay, University of Michigan Press, 1993, ISBN 0-472-08342-2 / ISBN 81-7167-356-2
* Democracy Indian style: Subhas Chandra Bose and the creation of India's political culture / Anton Pelinka; translated by Renée Schell, New Brunswick, NJ : Transaction Publishers (Rutgers University Press), 2003
* Subhas Chandra Bose: a biography / Marshall J. Getz, Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co., USA, 2002
* The Springing Tiger: Subhash Chandra Bose / Hugh Toye : Cassell, London, 1959
* Netaji and India's freedom: proceedings of the International Netaji Seminar, 1973 / edited by Sisir K. Bose. International Netaji Seminar (1973: Calcutta, India), Netaji Research Bureau, Calcutta, India, 1973
* Correspondence and Selected Documents, 1930-1942 / Subhas Chandra Bose; edited by Ravindra Kumar, Inter-India, New Delhi, 1992.
* Letters to Emilie Schenkl, 1934-1942 / Subhash Chandra Bose; edited by Sisir Kumar Bose and Sugata Bose, Permanent Black : New Delhi, 2004
* Japanese-trained armies in Southeast Asia: independence and volunteer forces in World War II / Joyce C. Lebra, New York : Columbia University Press, 1977
* Burma: The Forgotten War / Jon Latimer, London: John Murray, 2004
 External links
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Subhas Chandra Bose
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Subhas Chandra Bose
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Subhas Chandra Bose
* Biography (Calcuttaweb.com)
* "Mystery over India freedom hero". BBC News. 2006-05-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/4989868.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
* Speeches of Netaji
* Biography in Banglapedia
* Biography in Kamat's Potpouri
* Excerpts from Mihir Bose's "The lost hero: A Biography of Subhas Bose" in Tamilnation.org
* Subhas Chandra Bose in Sify itihaas
* Free Indian Legion
* The True Story of Bose
* India's Holy Grail: Back from Dead by Anuj Dhar, Asia Times Book Review
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Thursday, January 20, 2011
न जाया न विद्या न वृत्तिर्ममैव गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥१॥
भवाब्धावपारे महादुःखभीरु पपात प्रकामी प्रलोभी प्रमत्तः।
कुसंसारपाशप्रबद्धः सदाहं गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥२॥
न जानामि दानं न च ध्यानयोगं न जानामि तन्त्रं न च स्तोत्रमन्त्रम्।
न जानामि पूजां न च न्यासयोगम् गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥३॥
न जानामि पुण्यं न जानामि तीर्थं न जानामि मुक्तिं लयं वा कदाचित्।
न जानामि भक्तिं व्रतं वापि मातर्गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥४॥
कुकर्मी कुसङ्गी कुबुद्धिः कुदासः कुलाचारहीनः कदाचारलीनः।
कुदृष्टिः कुवाक्यप्रबन्धः सदाहम् गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥५॥
प्रजेशं रमेशं महेशं सुरेशं दिनेशं निशीथेश्वरं वा कदाचित्।
न जानामि चान्यत् सदाहं शरण्ये गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥६॥
विवादे विषादे प्रमादे प्रवासे जले चानले पर्वते शत्रुमध्ये।
अरण्ये शरण्ये सदा मां प्रपाहि गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥७॥
अनाथो दरिद्रो जरारोगयुक्तो महाक्षीणदीनः सदा जाड्यवक्त्रः।
विपत्तौ प्रविष्टः प्रनष्टः सदाहम् गतिस्त्वं गतिस्त्वं त्वमेका भवानि ॥८॥
Wednesday, January 19, 2011
हमनॆं तुमनॆं गला दबाया है, मर्यादाऒं का आदर्शॊं का !!
भारत मॆं हमनॆं भरत-बंधु कॊ,आजीवन वनवास दिया !
दिया कंस कॊ सत्ता सिंहासन,कान्हा कॊ कारावास दिया !
अग्नि-परीक्षा दॆती घर घर मॆं, अब कॊई न कॊई सीता !
हर श्लॊक मॆं बिलख रही है, अब वह वॆद ब्यास की गीता !!
अब युवा शक्ति कॆ गर्जन सॆ, संसद की दीवारॆं थर्रानॆं दॊ !!
राम राज्य तॊ आ जायॆगा , पहलॆ परसुराम कॊ आनॆ दॊ !!
Saturday, January 15, 2011
प्रिय बंधो चि.दत्तात्रय वि. गोडसे ,
मेरे बीमा के रुपिया अगर आ जाएँ तो उस रुपिया का बिनिभोग आपके परिवार के कार्य के लिए करना.रुपिया २००० आपके पत्नी के नाम पर. रुपिया ३००० चि. गोपाल की धर्मपत्नी के नाम पर और रुपिया २००० आपके नाम पर.इसप्रकार बीमा के कागजों पर मैंने रुपिया मिलने के लिए लिखा है.
मेरी उत्तर क्रिया करने का अधिकार यदि आपको मिलेगा... तो आप आपकी इच्छा से किसी प्रकार इस शुभ कार्य को संपन्न करना.लेकिन मेरी अंतिम विशेष इच्छा यहीं लिखता हूँ.
अपने भारतवर्ष की सीमा रेखा सिंधुनदी है. जिसके किनारे पर वेदों की रचना प्राचीन द्रष्टाओं ने की है.वह सिंधुनदी जिस शुभ दिन में फिर भारत वर्ष की ध्वज की छाया में स्वछंदता से बहती रहेगी उन दिनों मेरी अस्थिओं या रक्षा का कुछ छोटा सा हिस्सा उस सिंधुनदी में बहा दिया जाय.
मेरी यह इछ्चा सत्यसृष्टि में आने के लिए शायद और भी एक दो पिधिओं का समय लग जाय तो मुझे चिंता नहीं.उस दिन तक वह अवशेष वैसा ही रखो और आपके जीवन में वह शुभ दिन न आये तो आपके वारिशों को ये मेरी अंतिम इच्छा बतलाते जाना.
अगर मेरे न्यायलय वक्तव्य को सर्कार कभी वन्ध्मुक्त करेगी तो उसके प्रकाशन का अधिकार भी मै आपको दे रहा हूँ.
मैंने १०१ रुपिया आपको आज दिए हैं जो आप सौराष्ट्र सोमनाथ मंदिर का पुनरोद्धार हो रहा है उसके कलश कार्य के लिए भेज देना.
वास्तव में मेरे जीवन का अंत उसी समय हो गया था जब मैंने गाँधी पर गोली चलायी थी.उसके पश्चात मानो मै समाधी में हूँ और अनासक्त जीवन बिता रहा हूँ.
मै मानता हूँ की गाँधी जी ने देश के लिए बहुत कष्ट उठाये,जिसके लिए मै उनकी सेवा के प्रति और उनके प्रति नतमस्तक हूँ,किन्तु देश के इस सेवक को भी जनता को धोखा देकर मातृभूमि का विभाजन करने का अधिकार नहीं था.
मै किसी प्रकार की दया नहीं चाहता और नहीं चाहता हूँ की मेरी ओए से कोई दया याचना करे.
आपने देश के प्रति भक्तिभाव रखना अगर पाप है तो मै स्वीकार करता हूँ की वह पाप मैंने किया है.अगर वह पुण्य है तो उससे जनित पुण्य पद पर मेरा नम्र अधिकार है.
देश भक्ति को पाप कहें यदि
मै हूँ पापी घोर भयंकर
किन्तु रहा वो पुण्य कर्म तो
मेरा है अधिकार पुण्य पर
अचल खड़ा मै इस वेदी पर
मेरा विश्वाश अडिग है,नीति की दृष्टि से मेरा कार्य पूर्णतया उचित है.मुझे इस बात पर लेशमात्र भी संदेह नहीं है की भविष्य में सच्चे इतिहासकार इतिहास लिखेंगे तो मेरा कार्य उचित ठहराएंगे.
नाथूराम वि. गोडसे
७ नवम्वर १८७६ बंगाल के कांतल पाडा गांव में बंकिम चन्द्र चटर्जी ने ‘वंदे मातरम’ की रचना की ।
१८८२ वंदे मातरम बंकिम चन्द्र चट्टोपाध्याय के प्रसिद्ध उपन्यास ‘आनंद मठ’ में सम्मिलित ।
१८९६ रवीन्द्र नाथ टैगोर ने पहली बार ‘वंदे मातरम’ को बंगाली शैली में लय और संगीत के साथ कलकत्ता के कांग्रेस अधिवेशन में गाया।
मूलरूप से ‘वंदे मातरम’ के प्रारंभिक दो पद संस्कृत में थे, जबकि शेष गीत बांग्ला भाषा में।
वंदे मातरम् का अंग्रेजी अनुवाद सबसे पहले अरविंद घोष ने किया।
दिसम्बर १९०५ में कांग्रेस कार्यकारिणी की बैठक में गीत को राष्ट्रगीत का दर्जा प्रदान किया गया, बंग भंग आंदोलन में ‘वंदे मातरम्’ राष्ट्रीय नारा बना।
१९०६ में ‘वंदे मातरम’ देव नागरी लिपि में प्रस्तुत किया गया, कांग्रेस के कलकत्ता अधिवेशन में गुरुदेव रविन्द्र नाथ टैगोर ने इसका संशोधित रूप प्रस्तुत किया ।
१९२३ कांग्रेस अधिवेशन में वंदे मातरम् के विरोध में स्वर उठे ।
पं. नेहरू, मौलाना अब्दुल कलाम अजाद, सुभाष चंद्र बोस और आचार्य नरेन्द्र देव की समिति ने २८ अक्तूबर १९३७ को कांग्रेस के कलकत्ता अधिवेशन में पेश अपनी रिपोर्ट में इस राष्ट्रगीत के गायन को अनिवार्य बाध्यता से मुक्त रखते हुए कहा था कि इस गीत के शुरुआती दो पैरे ही प्रासंगिक है, इस समिति का मार्गदर्शन रवीन्द्र नाथ टैगोर ने किया ।
१४ अगस्त १९४७ की रात्रि में संविधान सभा की पहली बैठक का प्रारंभ ‘वंदे मातरम’ के साथ और समापन ‘जन गण मन..’ के साथ..।
१९५० ‘वंदे मातरम’ राष्ट्रीय गीत और ‘जन गण मन’ राष्ट्रीय गान बना ।
२००२ बी.बी.सी. के एक सर्वेक्षण के अनुसार ‘वंदे मातरम्’ विश्व का दूसरा सर्वाधिक लोकप्रिय गीत।
Saturday, January 1, 2011
उम्मीदॊं नॆ दर्पण दॆखा,सपनॊं का मंदिर टूटा पाया !
जॊ बैठा सिंहासन पर, जनता कॊ बस लूटा खाया !!
करुणा-कृंदित कितनी, पारी अब तक खॆल चु्कॆ हैं !
हम अपनॆं सीनॆ पर, अगणित तूफ़ाँ झॆल चुकॆ हैं !!
नव-चिंतन का दीप जलाऒ, तॊ नव वर्ष तुम्हारा स्वागत है !!१!!
यह खूनी अध्याय मिटाऒ, तॊ नव वर्ष तुम्हारा स्वागत है !!
अब तक दॆखीं हैं हमनॆं, उथल-पुथल की सदियां,
मासूमॊं की चीखॆं और, बहती शॊणित की नदियां,
दंगॊं कॆ दल-दल मॆं है, यह दॆश समूचा धंसा हुआ,
रक्त-पिपाषित मानव भी, काल-कंठ मॆं फंसा हुआ,
अब धर्म-वाद सॆ दॆश बचाऒ, तॊ नव वर्ष तुम्हारा स्वागत है !!२!!
यह खूनीं अध्याय मिटाओ, तॊ.................................
कितनी बहनॊं नॆं, राखी-बंधन कुर्बान कियॆ हैं,
कितनीं माताऒं नॆं, बॆटॊं कॆ बलिदान दियॆ हैं,
कितनी माँगॊं सॆ हमनॆं, सिंदूर उजड़तॆ दॆखॆ हैं,
कितनॆं कुल कॆ दीप, यहां अर्थी चढ़तॆ दॆखॆ हैं,
अब नूतन किरण दिखाऒ, तॊ नव वर्ष तुम्हारा स्वागत है !!३!!
यह खूनी अध्याय मिटाऒ, तॊ.................................
स्वार्थ-समंदर मॆं लहराती, राजनीति की नैया,
नहीं किनारा हमनॆं पाया, बदलॆ गयॆ खॆवैया,
कुर्सी पाकर सब नॆता, अपनी चालॆं सॊच रहॆ,
सॊन-चिरैया कॆ पर, बारी-बारी सब नॊंच रहॆ,
दॆश दलालॊं सॆ मुक्ति दिलाऒ,तॊ नव वर्ष तुम्हारा स्वागत है !!४!!
यह खूनीं अध्याय मिटाऒ, तॊ................................
नव वर्ष अगर आना, नव विकास की आंधी लाना,
सत्य-अहिंसा की लाठीवाला, वापस वॊ गाँधी लाना,
रंग दॆ बसंती चॊला गातॆ,आज़ाद-भगत कॊ आनॆ दॊ,
राष्ट्र-तिरंगा यॆ भारत का,दुनियाँ भर मॆं फ़हरानॆं दॊ,
जन-जन मॆं सद्भाव जगाऒ,तॊ नव वर्ष तुम्हारा स्वागत है !!५!!
यह खूनीं अध्याय मिटाऒ, तॊ.................................